Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, German Empire on 14 March, 1879. He studied in Catholic elementary school for three years. At the age of 8, he was transferred to the Luitpold Gymnasium (now known as the Albert Einstein Gymnasium), where he received advanced primary and secondary school education. Later, they moved to Italy and Albert continued his education at Aarau, Switzerland. In 1896 he joined the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich to be trained as a teacher in physics and mathematics. He got his diploma in 1901, and also acquired Swiss citizenship. As he was unable to find a teaching post, he accepted a position as technical assistant in the Swiss Patent Office.
Einstein during his stay at the Patent Office, produced much of his remarkable work and in 1908 he was appointed Privatdozent in Berne. In 1909 he became Professor Extraordinary at Zurich. In 1911 he was a Professor of Theoretical Physics at Prague, and at Zurich in the following year. In 1914 he was appointed Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Physical Institute and Professor in the University of Berlin. He became a German citizen in 1914 and remained in Berlin until 1933 when he renounced his citizenship for political reasons and emigrated to America to take the position of Professor of Theoretical Physics at Princeton. He became a United States citizen in 1940.
Einstein’s researches are well chronicled and his more important works include Special Theory of Relativity (1905), Relativity (English translations, 1920 and 1950), General Theory of Relativity (1916), Investigations on Theory of Brownian Movement (1926), and The Evolution of Physics (1938). Among his non-scientific works, About Zionism (1930), Why War? (1933), My Philosophy (1934), and Out of My Later Years (1950) are perhaps the most important. He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics for his “services to theoretical physics”, in particular his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect, a pivotal step in the evolution of quantum theory.